Laminar flow hood is a laboratory equipment containing a bench that provides an aseptic environment for scientist (biologist) to work with their samples. The use of laminar flow has been adopted in the microbiology laboratory, botany, chemistry, virology and pharmaceutical laboratory. The primary reason for using laminar flow hood is to avoid the contamination of …

Methods of making competent cells in prokaryotes

The ability of bacteria to take up exogenous DNA usually from closely related species which are exposed into their environment and incorporate it into their genome is known as competence, the process known as transformation. Some bacteria naturally can incorporate exogeneous DNA into their genome; these bacteria are called naturally competent bacteria. Examples include Streptococcus …

Description of DNA Recombination

DNA recombination is referred to as the making of a functional composite DNA strand that is obtained from two or three fragments from more than one organism. The composite DNA is often called recombinant DNA. This is made possible through genetic engineering. An aspect of genetic engineering known as molecular cloning makes recombinant DNA production …


Do you know that smallpox vaccine is made from inactivated smallpox viruses?. Do you know that polio vaccine is composed of inactive polio viruses?. Get to know WHY inactive form of microorganisms are used in vaccinating humans against infections here.


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