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Laminar flow hood is a laboratory equipment containing a bench that provides an aseptic environment for scientist (biologist) to work with their samples. The use of laminar flow has been adopted in the microbiology laboratory, botany, chemistry, virology and pharmaceutical laboratory. The primary reason for using laminar flow hood is to avoid the contamination of samples with dust and microbial contaminants (more…)


Different methods of making competent cells

The ability of bacteria to take up exogenous DNA usually from closely related species which are exposed into their environment and incorporate it into their genome is known as competence, the process known as transformation. Some bacteria naturally can incorporate exogeneous DNA into their genome; these bacteria are called naturally competent bacteria. Examples include Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtillis, Helicobacter pylori Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. The uptake of exogenous DNA from the environment often helps transformants to utilize certain substrate in the environment or become antibiotics resistance. However, it should be noted that transformation in naturally competent bacteria is usually one in a million or more. Thus, there is a need for induced transformation through artificial means. (more…)


Direct method of sterility test on the autoclave load and the significance of the sterility test

Sterile pharmaceutical products are best administered to patients in sterile form, devoid of microbial lives. If they are administered with contaminations (i.e. containing any microorganisms or its products). It can lead to secondary infection, thus worsening the patients’ health and consequentially death. (more…)



Golgi apparatus is a stack of flattened membrane bound vesicles that functions in the storage, modification and repackaging of manufactured biochemical substances in the cell. This organelle was discovered by an Italian scientist called Camillo Golgi while investigating the nervous system in 1879, the organelle was named after him in 1898.

Golgi apparatus is divided into two types based on their location in the cell into:

  • cis Golgi apparatus
  • trans Golgi apparatus

cis-Golgi apparatus

This is the type of Golgi apparatus found very close to the endoplasmic reticulum

trans-Golgi apparatus

This type of Golgi apparatus is found on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum.

How Golgi apparatus works

First the endoplasmic reticulum packages protein, lipids and other biochemical substances into vesicles and releases these vesicles into the Golgi apparatus which modify and repackage the proteins and lipids into vesicles and them release them to go into:

  1. Lysosome, an organelle which contains enzymes responsible for degrading and recycling molecules in living cells
  2. Cell membrane which leads to the outside of the cell. For example, insulin produced in ᵝ – cells of pancreas are released into the blood to help regulate the blood sugar level.
  3. Plasma membrane for cell repair and replacement.

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