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Golgi apparatus is a stack of flattened membrane bound vesicles that functions in the storage, modification and repackaging of manufactured biochemical substances in the cell. This organelle was discovered by an Italian scientist called Camillo Golgi while investigating the nervous system in 1879, the organelle was named after him in 1898.

Golgi apparatus is divided into two types based on their location in the cell into:

  • cis Golgi apparatus
  • trans Golgi apparatus

cis-Golgi apparatus

This is the type of Golgi apparatus found very close to the endoplasmic reticulum

trans-Golgi apparatus

This type of Golgi apparatus is found on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum.

How Golgi apparatus works

First the endoplasmic reticulum packages protein, lipids and other biochemical substances into vesicles and releases these vesicles into the Golgi apparatus which modify and repackage the proteins and lipids into vesicles and them release them to go into:

  1. Lysosome, an organelle which contains enzymes responsible for degrading and recycling molecules in living cells
  2. Cell membrane which leads to the outside of the cell. For example, insulin produced in ᵝ – cells of pancreas are released into the blood to help regulate the blood sugar level.
  3. Plasma membrane for cell repair and replacement.

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