discoveries and discoverers in biology


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discoveries and discoverers in biology

Kindly check the table below to find a list of selected notable contributions of some scientists to biology

Aristotle (384-322 BC) Early attempt to classify animals into groups based on their behavioral similarities
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Human anatomy
William Harvey (1628) Discovery of circulation of blood in the body
Lucretius (99-55BC




Girolamo Fracastoro (1476-1553)

hypothesized that disease was caused by invisible living creatures
Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek (1668) Built the first microscope
Francesco Stelluti (1625) Made the first observations of organisms
bees and weevils under the microscope
Robert Hooke (1665) He was the first person to observe cells under the microsope
Francesco Redi (1668) Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation by proving that flies produce maggots in decaying meat
Carolus Linnaeus (1735) Classification and nomenclature of living things
Charles Darwins (1859) Theory of natural selection
Emil von Behring (1901) Diphtheria antitoxin
Ronald Ross (1902) Cause and transmission of malaria
Robert Koch (1905) Tuberculosis research
Charles Laveran (1907) Role of protozoa in disease
Paul Ehrlich

E. Metchnikoff


Work on immunity
C. Richet (1913) Work on anaphylaxis
J. Bordet (1919) Discovery about immunity
C. Nicolle (1928) Work on typhus fever
K. Landsteiner (1930) Discovery of human blood groups
G. Domagk (1939) Antibacterial effect of prontosil
A. Fleming

E. B. Chain

H.W. Florey



Discovery of penicillin and its therapeutic value
M. Theiler (1951) Development of yellow fever vaccine
S.A. Waksman (1952) Discovery of streptomycin
J.F. Enders

T.H. Weller

F. Robbins (1954)

Cultivation of poliovirus in tissue culture
D. Bovet (1957) Discovery of antihistamine
G.W. Beadle

E.L. Tatum

J. Lederberg


Microbial genetics
S. Ochoa

A. Kornberg


Discovery of enzymes catalyzing nucleic acid synthesis
F.M. Burnet

P.B. Medawar


Discovery of enzymes catalyzing nucleic acid synthesis
F.H.C. Crick

J.D. Watson


Discovery of the structure of DNA
F.P. Rous (1966) Discovery of cancer viruses
R.W. Holley

H.G. Khorana

M.W. Nirenberg


Deciphering of the genetic code
M. Delbruck

A.D. Hershey


Discoveries concerning viruses and viral infections of cells
G. Edelman

R. Porter


Research on the structure of antibodies
H. Temin

D. Baltimore

R. Dulbecco


Discovery of RNA-dependent DNA synthesis by RNA tumor viruses; reproduction of DNA tumor viruses
B. Blumberg

D. C. Gajdusek


Mechanism for the origin and dissemination of Hepatitis B virus; research on slow virus infections
R. Yalow (1977) Development of the radioimmunoassay technique
H.O. Smith


W.Arber  (1978)

Discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics
B. Benacerraf

G. Snell

J. Dausset




W. Gilbert

F. Sanger



Discovery of the histocompatibility antigens

Development of recombinant DNA technology (Berg); development of



DNA sequencing techniques (Chemistry prize)

A. Klug (1982) Development of crystallographic electron microscopy and the elucidation of the structure
C. Milstein

G. J. F. Kohler

N.K. Jerner



Development of the technique for formation of monoclonal antibodies (Milsteins & Kohler); theoretical work in immunology
R. Ruska (1986) Development of the transmission of electron microscope (Physics Prize)
S. Tonegawa


The genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity
J. Deisenhofer, R. Huber & H. Michel

G. Elion


G. Hitchings



Crystallization and study of the photosynthesis



Development of drugs for the treatment of cancer, malaria, and viral infections

J.M. Bishop

H.E. Varmus



T.R. Cech



Discovery of oncogenes





Discovery of catalytic RNA

K.B. Mullis

M. Smith

R.J. Roberts

P.A. Sharp



Invention of polymerase chain reaction

Development of site-directed mutagenesis

Discovery of split genes

P.C. Doherty

R.M. Zinkernagel


Discovery of mechanism by which T lymphocytes recognize virus-infected cells
S. Prusiner (1997) Discovery of prions
R. Mackinnon


P. Agre


Structure of bacterial potassium and chloride channel proteins


Discovery of Aquaporins

B. Marshall



Discovery of the causative role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcers.
A.Z. Fire

C.C. Mello


Discovery RNA interference; gene regulation by dsRNA
M.R. Capecchi

M.J. Evans

O. Smithies


H. zur Hausen


Principle of gene modification in mice using embryonic stem cells





Discovery ofhuman papilloma viruses of the cervix

F. Barre-Sinoussi

L. Montagnier


Discovery of HIV
E.H. Blackburn

C.W. Greider



Discovery of telomeres and telomerase protect chromosomes
R.G. Edwards


In vitro fertilization
B.A. Beutler

J.A. Hoffman


R.M Steinman


Work on innate immunity





Role of dendritic cells in adaptive immunity

J.B. Gurdon

Shinya Yamanaka


Reprograming of mature cells to pluripotency
R.W. Schekman

T.C. Sudhof


Discovery of regulatory vesicle transport system in our cells
J. O’Keefe

M. Moser

E.I. Moser


Discovery of the cells involved in positioning system in the brain.
W.C. Campbell

S. Omura


Tu Youyou


Discovery of avermectin used for roundworm parasite treatment


Discovery of artemsinin and dihydroartemisinin for malaria treatment

Y. Ohsumi


Mechanism of autophagy
J.C. Hall

M. Roshbash

M,W. Young


Molecular technique for controlling circadian rhythm
J, Allison

T. Honjo


Cancer therapy by inhibiting negative immune regulation
W. Kaelin Jr.

P.J. Ratcliffe

G.L. Semenza


How cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability

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