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HYPERSENSITIVITY: CYTOTOXIC REACTIONS

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Ever been in the hospital, sitting with a patient who is urgently in need of blood transfusion and wondered why physicians keeping on rejecting willing donors after laboratory screening, or why willing tissue donors were rejected by physicians due to donor-patient tissue incompatibility?.

Meet Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic reactions for the answer, you will love it!.

Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity is an antibody-dependent reaction, it is also known as Hypersensitivity Type II. This is an abnormal reaction in which the antibodies (body soldiers whose main function is to fight pathogens) start to recognize the body cells as antigen and therefore starts fighting the body cells. Antibodies do this by opsonizing the target cells and attract either complement system to cause lysis of the cells or to present such cells for phagocytosis by dendritic cells, macrophage or disruption by Natural Killer cells (NK Cells).

Examples of these reactions occur in cases of hemolytic transfusion, tissue rejection, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Good pasture disease, Myasthenia gravis and Graves diseases.

Hemolytic transfusion

ABO blood group is an important factor to be considered, before transfusing blood to any patients. If blood is not well screened for blood group, the antibodies (IgM and IgM) recognizes such as a foreign entity, binds to it, causes inflammation, initial the complement protein to form membrane attack complex (MAC) which causes the lysis of the red blood cells as well as fetal life-threatening situation due to Inflammation and lysis.

Hypersensitivity type II has also been implicated with tissue rejection during organ transplant, wherein the donor’s organs are attacked and destroyed by the patient’s antibodies

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

This is an autoimmune disease in which a body recognized her red blood cells as foreign. It, therefore, produces antibodies (IgG and IgM) that binds self RBCs and present it to complement proteins and macrophage for disruption

Good pasture disease

This disease is a rare autoimmune disease in which the body’s antibodies recognize the lungs and kidney as foreign. Thereby causing hemorrhaging of the lung and kidney failure.

Myasthenia gravis

myasthenia gravis

In Myasthenia gravis, antibodies in the body recognize the body receptor site for acetyl-choline (a neurotransmitter) as antigens, it blocks them. With little muscle receptor sites remaining; general weakness, blurry vision, dropping of chin muscles, difficulty in chewing and swallowing ensue.

Graves disease

Graves disease

Body’s antibodies act against the thyroid gland thus lead the abnormal high production of thyroid hormones. This results in bulging eye, weakness, frequent defecation and in most cases goiter

See Also:

Cite this article as: Fagbohun, S.O., "HYPERSENSITIVITY: CYTOTOXIC REACTIONS," in ATG Ventures, 23/03/2019, https://atgventure.com/hypersensitivity-cytotoxic-reactions/.

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Bibliography

1.
C. Klatt MD E. Immunopathology. TRANSPLANT REJECTION. https://webpath.med.utah.edu/IMMHTML/IMM110.html. Accessed March 23, 2019.
2.
Myasthenia gravis – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/myasthenia-gravis/symptoms-causes/syc-20352036. Accessed March 23, 2019.
3.
Graves’ Disease Overview. EndocrineWeb. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/graves-disease/graves-disease-overview. Accessed March 23, 2019.
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