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Introduction to biology

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Introduction to biology

Biology (Bios-Life: Logos-knowledge) is the study of living organisms. Click here to learn more about the branches of biology

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS

MNEMONICS: REG-RING-DC

To know more about mnemonics click here

There are nine characteristics of living organisms, they include:

  1. RESPIRATION

Respiration is the exchange of gases between organisms and their environment. Every living thing must be able to take in oxygen and breathe out carbon (IV ) oxide.  The purpose of respiration is to help break down or oxidize food eaten by organisms to release energy in form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate).

  1. EXCRETION

Excretion is the removal of waste products of metabolism. Excretion is important to remove aerobic respiration product such as Carbon (IV) oxide and other solid metabolic waste products from ingested food substances.

  1. MOVEMENT

Living organisms must have this ability inorder to move from one place to another. This enable them to obtain their food and water. Both animals and plants posses this ability, as well as some bacteria that locomote via their flagella. Animals carry out this activity by using their legs, wings etc. While plants move only parts of her body.  For example plant grows towards the ray of sunlight and flowers closes at night.

  1. REPRODUCTION

All living things must be able to reproduce to ensure their continuity. The process which enables the production of younger ones (also called offspring) is called reproduction. Offspring are produced through either sexual or asexual method of reproduction, each offspring have similar characteristics as her parents

  1. IRRITABILITY

Living organisms must also have the ability to respond to both external and internal environment. irritability ensures that living organisms maximize their chances of survival in their respective environment.  For example, the blood vessels on the skin of mammals dilate (increase in diameter) in response to a rise in the body temperature and green plants growing by the window side grow towards light coming through the window for maximum photosynthesis.

  1. NUTRITION

All living organisms need food as a source of energy and growth. The two types of energy needed mainly by living organisms are chemical and light energy. Animals and fungi derive their chemical energy from other living organisms while the plants use light energy that they derive through the process of photosynthesis.

  1. GROWTH

Living organisms increase in size and mass by using the food that they obtain from nutrition.

  1. COMPETITION

This is the ability of living organisms to strive for nutrients, space and all other necessities of life in order to survive in their various environment.

  1. DEATH

This is a very important characteristics of all organisms. It is the ceasation of the period of existence of living things.

Cite this article as: Fagbohun, S.O., "Introduction to biology," in ATG Ventures, 01/11/2018, https://atgventure.com/introduction-to-biology/.

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