1–31–3 Ever been in the hospital, sitting with a patient who is urgently in need of blood transfusion and wondered why physicians keeping on rejecting willing donors after laboratory screening, or why willing tissue donors were rejected by physicians due to donor-patient tissue incompatibility?. Meet Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic reactions for the answer, you will love it!.

Immunology: the antibodies

Let’s study antibodies, one of the most powerful weapons used by a special type of a body soldier called plasma cells. Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins (Ig) are Y-shaped Glycoproteins produced by a differentiated type of B-cells called plasma cell.


Reinforcement, the use of machinery and the opt for the use of sophisticated weapons is perhaps every General’s best strategy for putting an end to a lingering war. The second line of defense in immunlogy help in the complete elimination of intruding microorganisms in the body. Second line of defense is also known as the …


Every empire needs gallant soldiers to keep their cities from invasion and if peradventure invaded needs soldiers to suppress intruder’s proliferation. Immunology is the study of the immune system, it deals with how the natural body soldiers help to fight and eliminate intruders (microorganisms) that causes diseases in our body.


Transportation is an essential activity in our day to day life. It is needed for moving oneself or one’s goods from one place to another. Amazingly, certain substances move in and out of the cell through its membrane in a process known as cell transport.


It is surprising, yet interesting to note that cells communicate with one another in a process known as cell signalling. Just as humans communicate by speaking, fowls by cocking, cats by meowing and dogs by barking. In cell signalling, a cell produces ligands (complex molecules of atoms) that binds specifically to the receptor on the …


Meiosis gives space for genetic recombination. It is the reason why siblings having the same parent look differently from each other and their parents. This is the type of cell division occurring in higher organisms such as ape, birds, cat and man.

The beauty in biological sciences

Give him marble, he sees sculptor. Give him ink, he sees Mona Lisa. Give him a horse, he sees its anatomy. Give him cloths and he sees a parachute. That’s Leonardo Da Vinci, the man who saw the beauty in whatever he does. The reason why many get bored at work is because they do …