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Different methods of making competent cells

The ability of bacteria to take up exogenous DNA usually from closely related species which are exposed into their environment and incorporate it into their genome is known as competence, the process known as transformation. Some bacteria naturally can incorporate exogeneous DNA into their genome; these bacteria are called naturally competent bacteria. Examples include Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtillis, Helicobacter pylori Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. The uptake of exogenous DNA from the environment often helps transformants to utilize certain substrate in the environment or become antibiotics resistance. However, it should be noted that transformation in naturally competent bacteria is usually one in a million or more. Thus, there is a need for induced transformation through artificial means. (more…)