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Welcome to today’s bionuggets. It’s interesting to know that biology have kingdoms too. Don’t bother yourself for long; these kingdoms are not warring kingdoms. These kingdoms can be either free living of each other or mutualistic to each other, parasitic or parasitic to each other.

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Until recently, there were only two kingdoms recognized in biology, namely: Kingdom plantae and Kingdom Animalia. Further studies have grouped living things into the following five kingdoms viz: Prokaryote, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Organisms in Kingdom Protictista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are usually called are eukaryote.

Kingdom Prokaryotae is made up of organisms known as bacteria. Bacteria have an average size of 0.5-10ʮm in size and are mainly unicellular in nature. It is believed that they came into existence 3.5million years ago. prokaryotes replicate by binary fission and possess 70S (50S and 30S according to Svedberg unit of sedimentation), this is one of the major difference between prokaryotes and other eukaryotes that have 80S ribosome. Bacteria have circular DNA (Plasmid) that lies free in the cytoplasm and non-membrane bound genetic material called nucleoid contrary to other eukaryotes with membrane bond genetic material called nucleus. Prokaryotes also possess cell wall made up of polysaccharides.

Kingdom Protocista: An important feature of living organisms in Kingdom protocista is their possession of membrane nucleic acid. It includes the organism that resembles plants (algae), the motile animal-like organisms such as Paramecium and the fungi-like organisms such as the parasitic Phytophthora infestans and Pythium sp. Most of the organisms in this kingdom are mainly aquatic and parasitic, though some free living organisms in this kingdom exist.

Kingdom Fungi: About 80,000 species has been classified under this kingdom. They are eukaryotes (with membrane bounding nucleic acid) and Cellulose cell wall containing Chitin. Organisms in this kingdom range from unicellular yeast to the large toadstool, puffball and stinkhorns. They can be found in both aquatic and terrestrial habitat, most of which are saprophytic (obtaining their nutrients from dead and decaying organic matters). The Study of organisms in this kingdom is known as Mycology.

Kingdom Plantae: Organisms in this kingdom are autotrophic and photosynthetic, meaning organisms that can manufacture the nutrients which they need by using sunlight and water. They are green colored multicellular organism and possess membrane bound nucleic acid.

Kingdom Animalia: Organisms in this kingdom are called animals, and they differ from organisms in other kingdom for they are all heterotrophic and multicellular. Organisms in this kingdom have advance digestive system and feed on fungi (in case of edible mushroom), plants and other animals

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